Water and arable land scarcity in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries necessitates growing vegetable crops in the greenhouses using desalinated water. There are a number of water desalination technologies to augment fresh water supply. These technologies have different energy consumption rates and variable costs to produce fresh water and brine. It is therefore necessary to compare these technologies for energy use efficiency and cost effectiveness to desalinate saline water.
Comparison of conventional reverse osmosis system with nano-filtration membrane (NanoH2O) for energy use efficiency and production of fresh water for vegetable production in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.